Recommended Readings


Introductory Reading - Language and Linguistics
Bauer, Laurie and Peter Trudgill, eds. Language Myths. London: Penguin, 1999.
Matthews, P.H. Linguistics: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: O.U.P., 2003.
Napoli, Donna Jo and and Vera Lee-Schoenfeld. Language Matters: A Guide to Everyday Questions about Language. 2d. ed. Oxford: O.U.P., 2010.

Further Reading
Aronoff, Mark, and Janie Rees-Miller, eds. The Handbook of Linguistics. Oxford: Blackwell, 2003.
Holm, John. An Introduction to Pidgins and Creoles [Cambridge Textbooks in Linguistics]. Cambridge: C.U.P., 2000.
Mufwene, Salikoko. The Ecology of Language Evolution [Cambridge Approaches to Language Contact]. Cambridge: C.U.P., 2001.
Pinker, Steven. The Language Instinct: How the Mind Creates Language. New York: Perennial Classics, 2000.
Winford, Donald. An Introduction to Contact Linguistics. London: Wiley-Blackwell, 2003.

English and English Creole
Aceto, Michael and Jeffrey P. Williams, eds. Contact Englishes of the Eastern Caribbean [Varieties of English around the World]. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 2003.
Alleyne, Mervyn C. Comparative Afro-American: An Historical-Comparative Study of English-based Afro-American Dialects of the New World. Ann Arbor, MI: Karoma, 1980.
McCrum, Robert, William Cran and Robert MacNeil. The Story of English. 3rd Rev. ed. London: Penguin Books, 2002.
Roberts, Peter A. West Indians and their Language . 2d ed. Cambridge: C.U.P., 2007.
Roberts, Peter A. From Oral to Literate Culture: Colonial Experience in the English West Indies . Kingston: UWI Press, 2000.
Solomon, Denis. The Speech of Trinidad: A Reference Grammar. St. Augustine: School of Continuing Studies, U.W.I., 1993.
See UWI Press for more books.

French and French Creole
Ball, Rodney. The French-Speaking World: A Practical Introduction to Sociolinguistic Issues. London: Routledge, 1997.
Chaudenson, Robert. Les Créoles. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1995.
Corne, Chris. From French to Creole: The Development of New Vernaculars in the French Colonial World. London: University of Westminster Press, 1999.
Thomas, John Jacob. The Theory and Practice of Creole Grammar. 1869. Reprint. London and Port-of-Spain: New Beacon Books, 1969.

Spanish and Spanish Creole

Mar-Molinero, Clare. The Spanish-Speaking World: A Practical Introduction to Sociolinguistic Issues. London: Routledge, 1997.
McWhorter, John H. The Missing Spanish Creoles: Recovering the Birth of Plantation Contact. Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2000.

Reference Material
Allsopp, Jeannette. The Multilingual Caribbean Dictionary of Flora, Fauna and Foods in English, French, French Creole and Spanish. Kingston: Arawak Press, 2003.
Allsopp, Richard. Dictionary of Caribbean English Usage, with a French and Spanish Supplement. Oxford: O.U.P., 1996. (Also available in paperback from UWI Press, 2003.)
Breton, R.P. Raymond. 1999. Dictionnaire cara?be-fran?ais. Auxerre, 1665. Reprint. Introduced and annotated by CELIA and GEREC, with CD-ROM by M. Thouvenot. Paris: Editions Karthala with IRD.
Carlin, Eithne B. and Jacques Arends. Atlas of the Languages of Suriname. Kingston: Ian Randle Publishers, 2003.
Cassidy, Frederic Gomes, and Robert B. LePage. Dictionary of Jamaican English. 2d. ed. Kingston: UWI Press, 2003.
Crystal, David. Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics. 5th ed. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 2003.
Crystal, David. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language. 2d. ed. Cambridge: C.U.P., 2003.
Crystal, David. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language. Cambridge: C.U.P., 1997.
Lewis, M. Paul, Gary F. Simons, and Charles D. Fennig (eds.). Ethnologue: Languages of the World. 17th ed. Dallas, Texas: SIL International, 2013. Online version:
Holm, John A., and Alison Watt Shilling. Dictionary of Bahamian English. Cold Spring, N.Y. : Lexik House Publishers, 1982.
Ludwig, Ralph, et al, eds. Dictionnaire créole-français (Guadeloupe) / français-créole (Guadeloupe). Paris: Maisonneuve & Larose, 2002.
Ratzlaff, Betty, ed. English/Papiamentu Dictionary, Papiamentu/Ingles Dikshonario. Kralendijk, Bonaire: TWR Foundation, 1995.
Shapiro, Norma and Jayme Adelson-Goldstein. The Oxford Picture Dictionary: English/Haitian Creole Angle/Kreyol Ayisyen. Oxford: O.U.P., 2000.
Taylor, Douglas MacRae. Languages of the West Indies. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1977.
Voightlander, Katie, and Hyatt Moore, eds. The Alphabet Makers: A Presentation from the Museum of the Alphabet. Huntington Beach, CA: Wycliffe Bible Translators, 1990.
Winer, Lise, ed. Dictionary of the English/Creole of Trinidad & Tobago: On Historical Principles. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 2010.


Recommended Readings compiled by Jo-Anne S. Ferreira,
Department of Modern Languages and Linguistics, UWI, St Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago

(All graphs copyright © J.S. Ferreira)

Thanks to Lise Winer, Keith Laurence, Nicole Roberts, Mervyn Alleyne, Michèle Stewart,
Rocky Meade, and Sonya Moze for comments and contributions.
All other comments and contributions welcome.


Did you Know
Limón Creole, also known as Limón English or Mekatelyu, is a Caribbean language spoken in the province of Limón, located on the Caribbean side of Costa Rica, as well as Colon (Panama) and San Andres. View more Caribbean country profiles.
Did you Know
Limón creole "...was introduced in Costa Rica by Jamaican immigrants who came to work on the banana plantations in Limón and on the Pacific railroad; for this reason, many Jamaican English words can be found in its lexicon" Read article

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